Anemia detection posters with mirror( English , Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Panjabi, Asamies, Bengali, Marathi, Urdu)

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Anemia detection instrument

(  A simple community based diagnostic tool without taking blood)

Designed by Dr. Rajesh Mehta, Professor, Department of Community Medicine & Secretary, People’s Health and Development Trust , Ahmedabad

Introduction:

This is an extraordinary instrument to bring changes in lives of lakhs of anemic patients all over the world. Not only can that it also be used to prevent anemia. It gives an idea about anemia by self examination or by little trained health workers. There is no need to let down blood nor it requires any recurring cost.

Meaning of “MUKTA” 

(In Gujarati ” Mukta” means “freedom” )

 M = Multipurpose

 U = universally applicable

 K = Knowledge sharing instrument

 T = Treatment tracker

 A = Affordable by all.

 

MUKTA is look like as shown in fig-1. It is a simple hardboard mount poster. The center of poster has mirror and surrounding to mirror there are photographs of tongue and inner side of lip. These   photographs are showing severe anemia to normal person’s tongue and lip. The person himself / herself looks in mirror and diagnose his/her condition. The lower part of  poster contain the remedial measure against anemia. The food which contain higher iron are written.

 

Advantages & uses of the instrument.

  1. Detection of anemia by self examination.
  2. Low cost.
  3. Avoids repeated pricks & thereby reducing chances of  HIV/hepatitis B etc.
  4. Progress of anemia status can be measured regularly.
  5. Easy to carry in field.
  6. Good instrument to start talk in groups even in unknown field practice area.
  7. Inter-observer bias, time bias, instrument bias etc. can be avoided.
  8. Person can use it – as mirror

– Detection of caries

– watching progress for jaundice

– in school & ICDS (it can be used to teach self  examination for personal hygiene.)(This will ensure proper preservation & care of an instrument.)

  1.   Small scale research on various interventions for    anemia.
  2.  Anemia control – as it gives detail message on symptoms & causes of anemia as well as hints on treatment of anemia along with list of food articles which are rich in iron.
  3. In dessert it is useful for sending signals/messages.     (Common use of mirror)
  4. It prevents malpractices of certain doctors who  link with path lab to give particular results. (Thereby it helps in improving image of doctors in general.)
  5. In teaching it is used to give an excellent example for community participation & appropriate technology. It also helps in equitable distribution as well as inter-sectoral coordination. That means it satisfies all the 4 principles of primary health care

Experience of people :

More than 90000 instruments are being used by institutes & individuals all over country. Total beneficiaries are estimated to be around 90 lacs. It is available in Gujarati , Hindi , English , Marathi , Telugu , Tamil , Kannad , Panjabi , Bangali , Urdu , Asamies , Oriya

Good feedback is given by people in last 18 years.

 

Special Note :

Anemia is the most common morbidity worldwide. World Health Organization has defined anemia as “a condition in which the hemoglobin content of blood is lower than normal as a result of deficiency of one or more essential nutrients regardless of the cause of such deficiency”.  Hemoglobin is necessary for transporting oxygen from the lungs to other tissues and organs of the body.

There are many causes of anemia. One of the most common causes is the nutritional deficiency of mineral iron and vitamin folate or vitamin B12. This nutritional anemia is worldwide prevalent and more seen is developing countries. It is estimated that worldwide more than two billion people are anemic. In India, the incidence of anemia is highest among women and children, varying between 60-70 percent.

Effect of Anemia

Anemia has detrimental effects on the health of women and children. It is an underlying cause of maternal mortality and perinatal mortality among women. India, the maternal mortality rate is still very high. In India 20-40% of maternal deaths were found due to anemia. Conditions like abortion, premature births, post-partum hemorrhage and low birth weight baby are specially associated with low hemoglobin during pregnancy.

Anemia also impairs the immune response and function of body. Thus such individual is susceptible to infection. Not only they get frequent infection but the severity of infection is also high in anemic cases compare to non-anemic.

The economic point of view, anemia is also affection the work capacity of individual. It is said that anemia (even mild anemia) causes significant impairment of maximum work capacity. The more severe the anemia, that means the greater reduction in work performance of individual and thereby productivity. This has significant impact on country economic output.

Diagnosis of Anemia

The most popular diagnostic tool for anemia is blood hemoglobin level as said in table. This is most commonly use in community where prevalence of anemia high. There are many other specific blood examination test available for diagnosis. But in all such test, one has to take blood and check for same.

Looking to large number of uses and advantages of this simple instrument, this is the best appropriate technology for field setup situation in developing countries and difficult areas like tribal and hilly areas. One of the principle of primary health care is appropriate technology. The primary health care document defines the appropriate technology is “the technology that is scientifically sound, adaptable to local needs and acceptable to those who apply it and those fro whom it is used and that can be maintained by the people themselves in keeping with the principle of self reliance with the resources the community and country can afford”.

Scope of instrument:

The simple tool of anemia detection can be kept any places like school, college, Anganwadi, Primary health center, Dispensary, clinics, Railway station, Bus-stop, waiting places etc. As our last National Family Health survey reported that more than 50% of our country women are anemic at any time, this is the high time to think in such line. There is need to change behavior of community, just imparting knowledge is not enough. India has completed three National Family health survey and all showing that the country has not improved anemia situation in last two decade. So this is high time to use simple but effective tool.

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